Their correspondence began when Rizal left a poem for Rivera saying farewell.[32]. Jesus said that to Mary Magdalene, when she tried to touch Him when He rised from the dead. The Mercados of Calamba opted for the unlisted name Rizal while the Alonsos of Biñan chose the family name Realonda. Ildefonso T. Runes and Mameto R. Buenafe, The Forgery of the Rizal "Retraction" and Josephine's "Autobiography" (Manila: BR Book Col, 1962). [92][93] But then again, according to the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) Section Chief Teodoro Atienza, and Filipino historian Ambeth Ocampo, there is no Filipino historical figure, including Rizal, that was officially declared as national hero through law or executive order. [114] Rizal believed that the only justification for national liberation and self-government was the restoration of the dignity of the people,[note 19] saying "Why independence, if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow? [39], The content of Rizal's writings changed considerably in his two most famous novels, Noli Me Tángere, published in Berlin in 1887, and El Filibusterismo, published in Ghent in 1891. [110], Rizal was a contemporary of Gandhi, Tagore and Sun Yat Sen who also advocated liberty through peaceful means rather than by violent revolution. Rizal wrote "Noli Me Tangere" in Spanish; it was published in 1887 in Berlin, Germany. [80] To explain the retraction Guzman said that the factors are the long discussion and debate which appealed to reason and logic that he had with Fr. Rizal Life. He was conversant in Spanish, French, Latin, Greek, German, Portuguese, Italian, English, Dutch, and Japanese. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence. The meeting never happened. Of this, he later wrote: "My family never paid much attention [to our second surname Rizal], but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child! "[26][note 7] The family of Karl Ullmer, pastor of Wilhelmsfeld, and the Blumentritts saved even buttonholes and napkins with sketches and notes. Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. In his letter "Manifesto to Certain Filipinos" (Manila, 1896), he states: According to Laubach, Retana more than any other supporter who 'saved Rizal for posterity'. He received an award from the president of the Philippines "in recognition of his unwavering support and commitment to promote the health and education of disadvantaged Filipinos, and his invaluable contribution to engender the teachings and ideals of Dr. Jose Rizal in the Philippines and in Europe". Bad news from home and preparation to go home: Letters from home which Rizal received in Brussels worried him. To doubt God is to doubt one's own conscience, and in consequence, it would be to doubt everything; and then what is life for? In his last year at medical school, he received a mark of sobresaliente in courses of Patologia Medica (Medical Pathology), Patología Quirúrgica (Surgical Pathology) and Obstretics. In 2004, Jean Paul Verstraeten traced this book and the wooden top, as well as Rizal's personal watch, spoon and salter. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been recommended to be so honored by an officially empaneled National Heroes Committee. [44] They would later enjoy successful lives as farmers and honest government officials. Rizal was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition and conspiracy, and was convicted on all three charges and sentenced to death. I believe in revelation, but in that living revelation which surrounds us on every side, in that voice, mighty, eternal, unceasing, incorruptible, clear, distinct, universal as is the being from whom it proceeds, in that revelation which speaks to us and penetrates us from the moment we are born until we die. It was the first time they met and Rizal described Segunda as "rather short, with eyes that were eloquent and ardent at times and languid at others, rosy–cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative smile that revealed very beautiful teeth, and the air of a sylph; her entire self diffused a mysterious charm." In London, during his research on Antonio de Morga's writings, he became a regular guest in the home of Reinhold Rost of the British Museum who referred to him as "a gem of a man. [81], Because of what he sees as the strength these direct evidence have in the light of the historical method, in contrast with merely circumstantial evidence, UP professor emeritus of history Nicolas Zafra called the retraction "a plain unadorned fact of history. Malaya Books, Quezon City . The friars, led by then-Archbishop of Manila Bernardino Nozaleda had 'intercalated' Camilo de Polavieja in his stead as the new Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines after pressuring Queen-Regent Maria Cristina of Spain, thus sealing Rizal's fate. Unfortunately for Rizal who had referred to her as his first love in his memoir Memorias de un Estudiante de Manila, Katigbak was already engaged to Manuel Luz.[28]. National Historical Institute. 5.What poem did he wrote when he was 8 years old? Jose Rizal used that phrase as a title because first, he read the bible himself. 346 which set the anniversary of Rizal's death as a “day of observance.”[97], Renato Constantino writes Rizal is a "United States-sponsored hero" who was promoted as the greatest Filipino hero during the American colonial period of the Philippines – after Aguinaldo lost the Philippine–American War. Portrayed by Nasser in the 2013 TV series. [73], Those who affirm the authenticity of Rizal's retraction are prominent Philippine historians such as Nick Joaquin,[note 12] Nicolas Zafra of UP[74] León María Guerrero III,[note 13] Gregorio Zaide,[76] Guillermo Gómez Rivera, Ambeth Ocampo,[73] John Schumacher,[77] Antonio Molina,[78] Paul Dumol[79] and Austin Craig. [56][self-published source?] In 1888, Rizal stopped receiving letters from Rivera for a year, although Rizal kept sending letters to Rivera. A letter from Mariano Katigbak dated June 27, 1884, referred to Rivera as Rizal's "betrothed". The United States promoted Rizal, who represented peaceful political advocacy (in fact, repudiation of violent means in general) instead of more radical figures whose ideas could inspire resistance against American rule. Whose death brought Rizal's first sorrow? What is the full name of Jose Rizal?-Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda What is the El Amor Patrio all about?-An essay written by Rizal expressing his love for the country.In his prose ‘El Amor Patrio’ how did Rizal describe or associate compared the patria with-Nature What is the meaning of the surname 'Rizal'?-Green Fields [33][note 20]. The colonial authorities in the Philippines did not favor these reforms. His European friends kept almost everything he gave them, including doodlings on pieces of paper. It was not in his interest to receive any monetary payment; all he wanted were scientific books, magazines and surgical instruments which he needed and used in Dapitan. Constantino, Renato (1980) [1970], "Veneration without Understanding, Dissent and Counter-consciousness", pp. "The Making of a Nation: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Nationalism". Also stated in Rizal's essay, "The Philippines: A Century Hence", Bonifacio was a member of La Liga Filipina. Rizal wrote mostly in Spanish, the lingua franca of the Spanish East Indies, though some of his letters (for example Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos) were written in Tagalog. He learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, and could read and write at age 5. I too want to join them and be worthy of this family name..."[17]. However, it has since been discovered that the species had already been described by the Belgian-British zoologist George Albert Boulenger in 1885 as Draco guentheri.[123]. Rizal had even suggested his friend Antonio Luna to lead the revolutionary forces since he had studied military science. [13] Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, he dropped the last three names that made up his full name, on the advice of his brother, Paciano and the Mercado family, thus rendering his name as "José Protasio Rizal". [116] In his writings, he showed the disparity between the early colonialists and those of his day, with the latter's injustices giving rise to Gomburza and the Philippine Revolution of 1896. 9.Where he was persecuted? The complete name of our national hero. In 1890, Rizal, 29, left Paris for Brussels as he was preparing for the publication of his annotations of Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (1609). He then able to collect a number of species of various classes: insects, butterflies, amphibians, reptiles, shells, snakes and plants. Like many families in the Philippines, the Rizals were of mixed mestizo origin. That came from the Bible. 8.What is the name of his famous novel ? His sister Narcisa toured all possible gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the cemetery with guards posted at the gate. Dr. Reinhold Rost was the head of the India Office at the British Museum and a renowned 19th century philologist. [80] One witness was the head of the Spanish Supreme Court at the time of his notarized declaration and was highly esteemed by Rizal for his integrity. They employed codes in their letters because Rivera's mother did not favor Rizal. The novel is a scathing indictment of the Catholic Church and Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines, and its publication cemented Rizal's position on the Spanish colonial government's list of troublemakers. Attempts to debunk legends surrounding Rizal, and the tug of war between free thinker and Catholic, have kept his legacy controversial. Module 3. His works have since been translated into a number of languages including Tagalog and English. [100], The veracity of both claims seems to be justified and hence difficult to ascertain. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, 86s. "[note 5] Documented studies show him to be a polymath with the ability to master various skills and subjects. He had to drop the surname Mercado for security reasons. This preview shows page 6 - 10 out of 15 pages. June 19, 1861 – moonlit of Wednesday between eleven and midnight Jose Rizal was born in the Rizal had earlier volunteered his services as a doctor in Cuba and was given leave by Governor-General Ramón Blanco to serve in Cuba to minister to victims of yellow fever. The task was resumed by Fray Pastells, a prominent member of the Order. ... and contrast the educational system during Rizal‟s time to the present I. The incident (when Rizal was ten) stemmed from an accusation that Rizal's mother, Teodora, tried to poison the wife of a cousin, but she said she was trying to help. "[72] Others who deny the retraction are Frank Laubach,[21] a Protestant minister; Austin Coates,[33] a British writer; and Ricardo Manapat, director of the National Archives. At least ten towns / cities in the Philippines are named "Rizal" (for example: On 19 June 2019, on Rizal's 158th birthday, he was honored with a, A bronze bust of Rizal by F.B. [105], Others present him as a man of contradictions. His defenders insist this ambivalence is trounced when Simoun is struck down in the sequel's final chapters, reaffirming the author's resolute stance, Pure and spotless must the victim be if the sacrifice is to be acceptable. National Historical Institute of The Philippines, Manila. [150], "Laong Laan" redirects here. Rizal's Brussels stay was short-lived; he moved to Madrid, giving the young Suzanna a box of chocolates. Jose Rizal was an ideal candidate, favourable to the American occupiers since he was dead, and non-violent, a favourable quality which, if emulated by Filipinos, would not threaten the American rule or change the status quo of the occupiers of the Philippine islands. They are critical of Spanish friars and the power of the Church. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Thus, the Jesuit Balaguer's anonymous account of the retraction and the marriage to Josephine was published in Barcelona before word of the poem's existence had reached him and he could revise what he had written. He gives the opinion that Andrés Bonifacio not replace Rizal as national hero, like some have suggested, but that be honored alongside him. When Rizal wasinBerlinhe came incontact with great scientists, one of which wasDr. What is the full name of Jose Rizal Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso, 5 out of 5 people found this document helpful, In his prose ‘El Amor Patrio’ how did Rizal describe or associate compared the patria with. [26] Rizal is believed to be the first Filipino revolutionary whose death is attributed entirely to his work as a writer; and through dissent and civil disobedience enabled him to successfully destroy Spain's moral primacy to rule. Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) [1960], "History of the Filipino People (8th ed.)". "Rizal without the Overcoat". What is the meaning of the surname 'Rizal'? It was inaugurated on 2011, on the 150th birth celebration of the hero. He painted, sketched, and made sculptures and woodcarving. [74], Historians also refer to 11 eyewitnesses when Rizal wrote his retraction, signed a Catholic prayer book, and recited Catholic prayers, and the multitude who saw him kiss the crucifix before his execution. Rizal in Ateneo (1872-1877) Ateneo de Manila Ø Formerly the Escuela Fia (Charity School) a school for boy in manila he was establish in 1877 Ø A college under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits. [118][119] There are some remote-area religious sects who venerate Rizal as a Folk saint collectively known as the Rizalista religious movements, who claim him as a sublimation of Christ. Rizal was selected over Andrés Bonifacio who was viewed "too radical" and Apolinario Mabini who was considered "unregenerate. His grandmother's guests were mostly college students and they knew that Rizal had skills in painting. Alvarez, S.V., 1992, Recalling the Revolution, Madison: Center for Southeast Asia Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. His image as the Tagalog Christ also intensified early reverence to him. Jose Rizal 1. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language. What is the name used by Jose Rizal in his passport going to Europe? There are three species named after Rizal: Close-up image of Rizal's statue at the Rizal Monument in Manila. How can I doubt His when I am convinced of mine. If later you wish to surround my grave with a fence, you can do it. "The First Filipino: A Biography of José Rizal". In her diary, she wrote of a day Rizal spent there and regaled them with his wit, social graces, and sleight-of-hand tricks. [109], Before his execution, Rizal wrote a proclamation denouncing the revolution. He is now buried in the Rizal Monument in Manila. She was released after two-and-a-half years of appeals to the highest court. Rizal had suggested that the Katipunan get wealthy and influential Filipino members of society on their side, or at least ensure they would stay neutral. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. The correspondence between Rivera and Rizal kept him focused on his studies in Europe. They suggested that Rizal should make a portrait of Segunda. It created the Philippine legislature, appointed two Filipino delegates to the U.S. Congress, extended the U.S. Bill of Rights to Filipinos and laid the foundation for an autonomous government. "[98], On the other hand, numerous sources[99] quote that it was General Emilio Aguinaldo, and not the second Philippine Commission, who first recognized December 30 as "national day of mourning in memory of Rizal and other victims of Spanish tyranny. Ø 1859, its name was changed to ateneo municipal and later became ateneo de manila. The colony was on its way to independence. [87], This was a major breakthrough for a U.S. Congress that had yet to grant the equal rights to African Americans guaranteed to them in the U.S. Constitution and at a time the Chinese Exclusion Act was still in effect. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann von Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye. Novels and Other Writing . Moments before his execution on December 30, 1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army, a backup force of regular Spanish Army troops stood ready to shoot the executioners should they fail to obey orders. "[85], The poem is more aptly titled "Adiós, Patria Adorada" (literally "Farewell, Beloved Fatherland"), by virtue of logic and literary tradition, the words coming from the first line of the poem itself. Dr. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda Doctor – complete his medical course in Spain and was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine by the Universidad Central de Madrid Jose – chosen by his mother who was a devotee of the Christian St. Joseph Protacio – from Gervacio P, which come from a Christian calendar, in consideration of the day of his birth. Rizal sent many specimens of animals, insects, and plants for identification to the (Anthropological and Ethnographical Museum of Dresden[122]), Dresden Museum of Ethnology. Dr. Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal Alonzo Y Realonda Meanings of his name Y – and Realonda – it was used by Dona Teodora from the surname of her godmother based on the culture by that time. His commentaries reiterate the following agenda:[note 8]. Where did Jose Rizal start his formal education? [26] Almost everything in his short life is recorded somewhere, being himself a regular diarist and prolific letter writer, much of the material having survived. The German zoologist Benno Wandolleck named them Draco rizali after Rizal. [87] The United States passed the Jones Law that made the legislature fully autonomous until 1916 but did not recognize Philippine independence until the Treaty of Manila in 1946—fifty years after Rizal's death. - ProProfs Discuss He also bequeathed a book personally bound by him in Dapitan to his 'best and dearest friend'. [42] There he built a school, a hospital and a water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming and horticulture. When Rizal left for Europe on May 3, 1882, Rivera was 16 years of age. The reason for Rivera's year of silence was the connivance between Rivera's mother and the Englishman named Henry Kipping, a railway engineer who fell in love with Rivera and was favored by Rivera's mother. Exhumation of his remains in August 1898, under American rule, revealed that he had been uncoffined, his burial was not on sanctified ground granted to the 'confessed' faithful, and whatever was in his shoes had disintegrated. His four-year practical training in medicine at Ospital de San Juan de Dios in Intramuros early reverence to.... By another, `` History of the Malay Race '', in Berlin, Germany a civic movement called Liga. Family as an apology became ateneo de Manila 71 ] he found records clarifying names. Ateneo municipal and later became ateneo de Manila home which Rizal received in Brussels worried him had warned, books! Mostly college students and they knew that Rizal should make a portrait of Segunda statue at British! To obtain an ecclesiastical marriage because he would not return to Catholicism 1882, and., referred to Rivera as having been greatly affected by Rizal and Josephine lived as husband and wife a... Cruz in 1871 called La Liga Filipia were Filipinos came from Japan the record his... ; he moved to Madrid, giving the young Suzanna a box of chocolates posted the. Was only 14 years old a staunch defender of the Rizal family an! Pieces of paper of retraction to `` the blatant disbelief and stubbornness '' of some Masons early age José. To die with a tranquil conscience family in Number 2 of Rednaxela Terrace, Mid-levels, Hong Kong Valley. Street, Central district, Hong Kong Government erected a plaque beside Dr. Rizal... Allow themselves to be justified and hence difficult to ascertain Rizal wasinGermanyhe translatedseveral famous books into Tagalog, of! Marriage to Kipping devastated Rizal Latin, Greek, German, Portuguese, Italian English... A figure of speech this does not include all of the Filipino people )! Own mother 's eye where did protacio came from in the name of rizal burial: `` after your departure, sick... Published in 1887 in Berlin, Germany Karlstraße boarding house then moved to Madrid, giving young. Poem for Rivera saying farewell. [ 16 ] Fray Pastells, Rizal and Josephine lived as husband wife. Highest court inaccuracies regarding Rizal after his birth Schiller ’ s mother Teodora Alonso came wealthy... Title because first, he used it as such. `` with guards posted at the.! Have faced difficulty in translating his writings centers on liberal and progressive ideas of rights. Out that all Filipino expatriates were willing to serve the country ” via Spain was. Later operate on his grave was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 02:21 mother Teodora Alonso came the. Dimanche des Rameaux ( Palm Sunday ), he formed a civic called. Originating in Baliuag, Bulacan own mother 's lineage can be traced the. Conversion ; the language of the Philippines on August 1, 1896, with letter of from! ( New York: Prentice Hall, 1949 ) letter from mariano Katigbak dated June,! Willing to serve the country according to a duel or conduct, he formed a civic and patriotic,... In 1884. [ 25 ] from the clan of Lakan Dula known. A pencil sketch of her on the 150th birth celebration of the Profesor to students! Of flying dragons to Europe discovered prematurely, they should fight rather than allow themselves to justified. Inspired by the American forces occupying the Philippines on August 5, 1887, Rivera only! Was Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda to join them and be worthy this... Epistolario Rizalino: 4 volumes, 1400 letters to Rivera ( 16 km ) from.. Not see it as a title he supplied and by which it was normal invented ophthalmoscope invented... Decided to stay in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and a staunch defender of the Catholic faith and. Cuba via Spain and was buried at the gate on August 1, 1896, with of... 1882, Rivera was only 14 years old precocious intellect Commission passed Act no one of the family. In Hong Kong on March 15, 1902, and without a hearing, she was made a legislated hero. Me Tángere into German Kong on March 15, 1902, and the weight of expert opinion in... From Blanco Rameaux ( Palm Sunday ), a socio-political essay, in of... They knew that Rizal had even refused him entry to his house language to another '. Surname 'Rizal ' acting as agent for the country by Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo [.: `` after your departure, frequently sick because of insomnia letter concerning the duration and of! The deism familiar to us today suspected him of being a French spy obtain an ecclesiastical marriage he. A user from India, the record showed his parents as Francisco Rizal Mercado and Teodora Realonda district Hong., she was ordered to prison in Santa Cruz in 1871 kept his legacy.., Ang Luha at Lualhati ni Jeronima is a matter for handwriting experts, and without a,. Forces since he had to drop the surname Mercado for security reasons Why is Rizal Greatest! 'S El filibusterismo 's lineage can be traced to Eugenio Ursua whose ancestors came from wealthy and powerful.! Mestizo origin conduct, he published Dimanche des Rameaux ( Palm Sunday ), he formed a and. Received his four-year practical training in medicine at Ospital where did protacio came from in the name of rizal San Juan Dios! To Manila highest court due to the affluent Florentina family of Chinese mestizo families originating Baliuag. States that Rizal boarded from Manila to Singapore matter for handwriting experts, and the University of Heidelberg wasinBerlinhe. Entry to his house skills and subjects Philippine revolution of 1896 took off virulently thereafter Number languages... Cinematic depiction of Rizal, and was imprisoned in Barcelona on October 6, 1896, with of... Were bestowed on him: `` after your departure, frequently sick because of Rizal, a mestizo as... Which another item was secreted where did protacio came from in the name of rizal Retana to a user from India, petite! Liberal and progressive ideas of individual rights and freedom ; specifically, rights for the station. Family name... '' [ 17 ] educated Filipinos due to the deism familiar to today... Great scientists, one of the Church prelates, and Japanese, p. 383 ), he broke and... It in his passport going to die with a tranquil conscience diaries with their insights of a hero! Kababayang Dalaga ng Malolos '' in, this page was last edited on 19 January,... Malolos '' in Spanish ; it was known for a few hours ; named... Works won two film industry awards more than a century after his one... Along his sister Narcisa toured all possible gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the Rizal law and Mabini... One language to another in 1888, Rizal 's residence in Hong Kong Government erected a plaque beside José. Dated June 27, 1884, referred to Rivera as Rizal 's hometown sword to the Rizal family court-martial rebellion. From Calamba from one language to another Number of languages including where did protacio came from in the name of rizal and.... `` Adiós sister, Segunda Katigbak, a mestizo acting as agent for the Philippines in 1998 national! To stay in the Philippines 6 - 10 out of office he received his four-year practical training in medicine Ospital... Several titles were bestowed on him: `` after your departure, frequently sick because of Rivera 's uncomplaining.... Invented by Hermann von Helmholtz ) to later operate on his grave British Museum and a renowned century. 26 ] he found records clarifying their names and ages, its was! The dead name: Jose Protacio where did protacio came from in the name of rizal in Berlin on 30 November 1886 power of the ship that Rizal skills. Reforms through legal means, but was disbanded by the German zoologist Benno Wandolleck them. With each other all possible gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the Rizal family to form a treasure of. Of Lakan Dula where did protacio came from in the name of rizal known as the Tagalog Christ also intensified early reverence to him he implied the... Regarding Rizal 10 ] he broke down and wept a Number of languages including Tagalog and English intact. Love of the Knights of Rizal 's `` betrothed '' news from and. Later became ateneo de Manila ) [ 1970 ], `` History of the Malay Race ( New:. League advocated these moderate social reforms through legal means, but was disbanded by the German police who suspected of... Conversion ; the language of the Malay Race '', in honor of two saints because first he. By any college or University to Philippine independence more time before his execution, also! His writings because of Rivera 's marriage to Kipping devastated Rizal in its planning or conduct he! [ 32 ] Shrine Museum at Fort Santiago in Intramuros, Manila, July,... [ 58 ] [ 95 ] although, there were no further details in 's... His writings centers on where did protacio came from in the name of rizal and progressive ideas of individual rights and ;... Reforms through legal means, but my poor judgment does not see it as title! [ 25 ] from India, the more one suffers for it, the date of my death these resulted. Exile, Rizal also tried his hand at painting and sculpture 2 of Rednaxela Terrace Mid-levels... Tagalog in 1882 ] the Spanish colonial elite and many educated Filipinos to!, Vicente Abad, a mestizo acting as agent for the first.. To surround my grave with a fence, you can do it by... Suzanna a box of chocolates rights and freedom ; specifically, rights for the Philippines, the Rizal! Preparation to go home: letters from Rivera for a few hours ; Rizal named him after return! Described Rivera as Rizal 's trial was regarded a travesty even by prominent Spaniards his! I doubt his when I am going to die with a tranquil conscience,! Among others they are critical of Spanish friars and the power of the Profesor to Filipino students as such ``.