"[86] The greatest of personal virtues according to the Kural text is non-killing, followed by veracity,[91][92][93] and the two greatest sins that Valluvar feels very strongly are ingratitude and meat-eating. The first complete verse translation in English and the first complete English translation by a single author was achieved in 1886 by George Uglow Pope, whose work brought the Tirukkural to a wider audience of the western world. [184][187] Gandhi then took to studying the Kural in prison, which eventually culminated in his starting the non-violence movement to fight against the British. "[9][10] It emphasizes non-violence and moral vegetarianism as virtues for an individual. "The Great Story") probably composed in the 9th century quotes from the Tirukkural and embeds similar teachings and morals. To kill is what is called lack of grace. [67] There are two distinct meanings for every couplet, namely, a structural one and a proverbial one. The scholars who believe this tradition, such as Somasundara Bharathiar and M. Rajamanickam, date the text to as early as 300 BCE. The temple shikhara (spire) above the sanctum shows scenes of Hindu life and deities, along with Valluvar reading his couplets to his wife. [1][5][6] Considered one of the greatest works on ethics and morality, it is known for its universality and secular nature. [42], The Kural text is aphoristic and non-denominational in nature and can be selectively interpreted in many ways. [136][140], The first, and incomplete, English translations were made by N. E. Kindersley in 1794 and then by Francis Whyte Ellis in 1812. [145], The translations of the Kural in Southeast Asian and East Asian languages were published in the 20th century. John Lazarus and Mr. F W Ellis - For their English translation and explanation. "[71] There are no structural gaps in the text, with every couplet indispensable for the structured whole. [143] W. H. Drew translated the first two parts in prose in 1840 and 1852, respectively. Valluvar's text can be interpreted and maneuvered in other ways, states Cutler. "[184] According to K. M. Munshi, "Thirukkural is a treatise par excellence on the art of living. [44][d], Valluvar is thought to have belonged to either Jainism or Hinduism. The Kural has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. [90] Valluvar presents his theory of state using six elements: army (patai), subjects (kuti), treasure (kul), ministers (amaiccu), allies (natpu), and forts (aran). [53][54][55], The Kural is structured into 133 chapters, each containing 10 couplets (or kurals), for a total of 1,330 couplets. "[184] Leo Tolstoy called it "the Hindu Kural,"[187] and Mahatma Gandhi called it "a textbook of indispensable authority on moral life" and went on to say, "The maxims of Valluvar have touched my soul. The one is non-killing, the other is killing; Not to kill is grace. [12][16], The Kural has been widely admired by scholars and influential leaders across the ethical, social, political, economical, religious, philosophical, and spiritual spheres over its history. However, Drew translated only 630 couplets, and the remaining were translated by John Lazarus, a native missionary. It is one of the 27 wells dug on the orders of Ellis in 1818, when Madras suffered a severe drinking water shortage. [128] Following these medieval commentaries, there are at least 21 venpa commentaries to the Kural, including Somesar Mudumoli Venba, Murugesar Muduneri Venba, Sivasiva Venba, Irangesa Venba, Vadamalai Venba, Dhinakara Venba, and Jinendra Venba, all of which are considered commentaries in verse form. thirukural book pdf download.read thirukkural book online. [46], According to other scholars, Valluvar's writings suggest that he belonged to Hinduism. Translated up to couplets 380 from Book I. Virtue and Wealth. [121][h] Some of the Tamil literature that was composed after the Kural quote or borrow its couplets in their own texts. [102], (Kural 543; John Lazarus 1885,[103] & A. K. Ananthanathan 1994). [67] In their isolated form, that is, when removed from the context of the 10-couplet chapter, the couplets lose their structural meaning but retain the "wise saying, moral maxim" sense. [1], According to Zvelebil, the Tirukkural borrows "a great number of lines" and phrases from earlier Tamil texts. "[184], The portrait of Tirukkural author with matted hair and a flowing beard, as drawn by artist K. R. Venugopal Sharma in 1960, was accepted by the state and central governments as the standardised version. The first printed copy of the Thirukkural saw the light in 1831 thanks to Kandappan[158], the butler of George Harrington, a European Civil Servant possibly in the Madurai district. In the long inscription Ellis praises Valluvar and uses a couplet from the Tirukkural to explain his actions during the drought. [189], k. ^ A stone inscription found on the walls of a well at the Periya Palayathamman temple at Royapettai indicates Ellis' regard for Valluvar. [241][242][243], i. Along with various versions of his birth circumstances, many state he went to a mountain and met the legendary Agastya and other sages. Introduction The Thirukkural is one of the greatest pieces of literature of all times. [152][153], The Thirukkural remained largely unknown outside India for over a millennium. [201], In 1818, the then Collector of Madras Francis Whyte Ellis issued a gold coin bearing Valluvar's image. [107], The author seldom shows any concern as to what similes and superlatives he used earlier while writing on other subjects, purposely allowing for some repetition and mild contradictions in ideas one can find in the Kural text. For example, the Prabandhas such as the Tiruvalluvamalai probably from the 10th century CE are anthologies on Tirukkural, and these extensively quote and embed it verses written in meters ascribed to gods, goddesses, and revered Tamil scholars. Wise men who have clear mind will refrain from eating the flesh of a lifeless animal. thirukkural read online. It was authored by Thiruvalluvar. [35] The Kural text itself does not name its author. [9][40] The traditional biographies not only are inconsistent, but also contain incredulous claims about the author of the Kural text. "[96] The Kural differs from every other work on morality in that it follows ethics, surprisingly a divine one, even in its Book of Love. Thirukkural in Tamil with English Translation by Kaviyogi Maharishi Shuddhananda Bharatiar Thirukural English Translation and Commentary - by Rev Dr G U Pope, Rev W H … [216] Authors influenced by the Kural include Ilango Adigal, Seethalai Satthanar, Sekkilar, Kambar, Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Schweitzer, Vallalar, Monsieur Ariel, Constantius Joseph Beschi, Karl Graul, August Friedrich Caemmerer, Nathaniel Edward Kindersley, Francis Whyte Ellis, Charles E. Gover, George Uglow Pope, Vinoba Bhave, Alexander Piatigorsky, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, and Yu Hsi. Not Speaking Evil of the Absent (, Chapter 20. The following table illustrates two different facets of a subject depicted by two Kural couplets from the same chapter and their different interpretations by various translators. It is the preservation of life, and its destruction (therefore) it is not right to eat that flesh (from which life has been taken away). Pleasures of Temporary Variance (, Chapters 39–63: Royalty, the qualities of the leader of men, Chapters 64–73: The subject and the ruler, Chapters 74–96: Essential parts of state, shrewdness in public life, Chapters 97–108: Reaching perfection in social life. [149] Talking about translating the Kural into other languages, Herbert Arthur Popley observes, "it is impossible in any translation to do justice to the beauty and force of the original. A few of these relied on re-translating the earlier English translations of the work. The traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a later date of 450 to 500 CE and that it was composed after the Sangam period. While in Chapter 93 Valluvar writes on the evils of intoxication. Jayaraman. Instability of Earthly Things (, Chapter 45. [222], The Kural text was first included in the school syllabus by the colonial era British government. However, a number of musicians have set it to tune and several singers have rendered it in their concerts. [105] The Kural cautions against tyranny, appeasement and oppression, with the suggestion that such royal behavior causes natural disasters, depletes the state's wealth and ultimately results in the loss of power and prosperity. This can be observed in his treatment of the concept of ahimsa or non-violence, which is the principal concept of both the religions. Whereas he says that one can eject what is natural or inborn in him (Kural 376). [191] In January 2016, Chitravina N. Ravikiran set the entire 1330 verses to music in a record time of 16 hours. [98] In a social and political context, the Kural text glorifies valour and victory during war and recommends a death sentence for the wicked only as a means of justice. [8], The Kural is traditionally praised with epithets and alternate titles such as "the Tamil Veda" and "the divine book. Mercy demands not to kill; butchering is cruel, and eating flesh meat is insensuous. Two trees featured in Thirukkural are palm and bamboo. [188] It soon became a popular and the standard portrait of the poet. The Thirukkural is one of the most revered ancient works in the Tamil language. [9] Another states he was an outcaste, born to a Pariah woman and a Brahmin father. (a) If it is asked what compassion is, it is not killing any living beings; If one is freed from delusion and has the wisdom spotless, Don’t hide behind the butcher’s blade saying, ‘He kills, I only eat’, If you wish, as you should, that your soul be liberated, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 01:03. Again, he did not translate the whole work but only parts of it. Skill in the Conduct of Quarrels (, Chapter 109. The word ‘Kodi’ (Crore) used in 7 places in Thirukural. [11][99][100], According to Kaushik Roy, the Kural text in substance is a classic on realism and pragmatism, and it is not a mystic, purely philosophical document. The Tamil inscription on his grave makes note of his commentary of Tirukkural.[245]. [9][38] Mu Raghava Iyengar speculated that "valluva" in his name is a variation of "vallabha", the designation of a royal officer. The first French translation was brought about by an unknown author by about 1767 that went unnoticed. The Thirukkural meaning ‘Sacred Verses’ is a classic Tamil Sangam literature authored by Sage Thiruvalluvar and remains one of the most widely translated works in the world. Each kural or couplet contains exactly seven words, known as cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second, following the kural metre. The men of pure vision quite free from illusion's dark mesh. These are written by various scholars to develop, comment on and expound the terse ideas such as a kural or a sutra or any text of significant significance (e.g. TIRUKKURAL English Translation and Commentary by Rev Dr G U Pope, Rev W H Drew, Rev John Lazarus and Mr F W Ellis. [172] Authors who came after the composition of the Tirukkural similarly extensively quoted and borrowed from the Tirukkural. Along with his own English prose translation, his publication contained the original Tamil text, the Tamil commentary by Parimelazhagar and Ramanuja Kavirayar's amplification of the commentary. Thirukkural (Sacred Couplets) in English. Penned by sage thiruvalluvar, he was a profound thinker and a man of sublime wisdom. Following the translation of the Kural text into Latin by Constantius Joseph Beschi in 1730, Nathaniel Edward Kindersley attempted the first ever English translation of the Kural text in 1794, translating select couplets in verse. One of the eight characters of God is being highly merciful, so thirukkuRal also addresses God as an^thaNan. [154] The work has inspired Tamil culture and people from all walks of lives, with parallels in the literature of various languages within the Indian subcontinent. Of these, the commentaries by Kaviraja Pandithar and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer are considered classic by modern scholars. Assertion of the strength of Virtue (, Chapter 15. [219][220] Kural couplets and thoughts are cited in 32 instances in the Purananuru, 35 in Purapporul Venba Maalai, 1 each in Pathittrupatthu and the Ten Idylls, 13 in the Silappathikaram, 91 in the Manimekalai, 20 in Jivaka Chinthamani, 12 in Villi Bharatham, 7 in Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam, and 4 in Kanda Puranam. "[67] Within the chapter-structure, the couplets acquire their structural meaning and reveal the more complete teaching of the author. The 19th-century Christian missionary George Uglow Pope, for example, claimed that Valluvar must have lived in the 9th century CE, come in contact with Christian teachers such as Pantaenus of Alexandria, imbibed Christian ideas and peculiarities of Alexandrian teachers and then wrote the "wonderful Kurral" with an "echo of the 'Sermon of the Mount'. As of 2014, there were at least 57 versions available in the English language alone. The first claim of Valluvar as an authority appears in a 16th-century Jain text. (He lived between second century BC and eighth century AD) INTRODUCTION Human life is said to endeavor for the fulfillment of four goals of life- Dharma (Righteousness), Artha (Wealth or worldly comforts), Kaama (Desire-fulfillment) and Moksha (Liberation). [134], According to K. Mohanraj, as of 2013, there were at least 497 Tamil language commentaries written by 382 scholars beginning with Manakkudavar from the Medieval era. [33] There is negligible authentic information available about Valluvar's life. [77] Valluvar extols rain next only to God for it provides food and serves as the basis of a stable economic life by aiding in agriculture, which Valluvar asserts as the most important economic activity later in Book II of the Kural text. [47][48] The three parts that the Kural is divided into, namely, aṟam (virtue), poruḷ (wealth) and inbam (love), aiming at attaining veedu (ultimate salvation), follow, respectively, the four foundations of Hinduism, namely, dharma, artha, kama and moksha. Dr. G U Pope, Rev. M. S. Purnalingam Pillai. [90][101] A king and his army must always be ready for war, and should launch a violent offensive, at the right place and right time, when the situation so demands and particularly against weak and corrupt kingdoms. [160] Soon many commentaries followed, including those by Mahalinga Iyer, who published only the first 24 chapters. [92][94][95] As observed by P. S. Sundaram in the introduction to his work, while "all other sins may be redeemed, but never ingratitude," Valluvar couldn't understand "how anyone could wish to fatten himself by feeding on the fat of others. [126] Parimelalhagar's commentary has survived over the centuries in many folk and scholarly versions. "[237] This is recommended by the Bhagavad Gita as well, which discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism, namely, enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism, and this synthetic answer of the Gita recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. K. Balachander's Kavithalayaa Productions opened its films with the very first couplet of the Kural sung in the background. [56], Of the 1,330 couplets in the text, 40 couplets relate to god, rain, ascetics, and virtue; 200 on domestic virtue; 140 on higher yet most fundamental virtue based on grace, benevolence and compassion; 250 on royalty; 100 on ministers of state; 220 on essential requirements of administration; 130 on social morality, both positive and negative; and 250 on human love and passion. [225] On 26 April 2016, the Madras High Court directed the state government to include all the 108 chapters of the Books of Aram and Porul of the Kural text in school syllabus for classes VI through XII from the academic year 2017–2018 "to build a nation with moral values. [162], The first critical edition of the Tirukkaral based on manuscripts discovered in Hindu monasteries and private collections was published in 1861 by Arumuka Navalar – the Jaffna born Tamil scholar and Shaivism activist. [204] The chief element of the monument includes a 39-metre-high (128 ft) chariot, a replica of the chariot in the temple town of Thiruvarur, and it contains a life-size statue of Valluvar. ", "The sceptre of the king is the firm support of the Vedas of the Brahmin, and of all virtues therein described. Thirukkural english translation read online.download thirukkural pdf online. ^ For examples of Sanskrit loan words, see Zvelebil's The Smile of Murugan. Not Speaking Senseless Words (, Chapter 26. [175], The Thirukkural teachings are similar to those found in Arthasastra but differ in some important aspects. [180] While ahimsa remains the fundamental virtue of the Valluvarean tradition, Zen remains the central theme in Confucian tradition. The text states that one should call anyone with virtue and kindness a Brahmin. [26] According to Zvelebil, besides being part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, the author was also a part of the "one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition" as a few of the verses in the Kural text are "undoubtedly" translations of the verses of earlier Indian texts. It proceeds to describe the qualities of a righteous person, before concluding the introduction by emphasizing the value of aṟam or virtue. According to V. Ramasamy, "Beschi is purposely distorting the message of the original when he renders பிறவாழி as 'the sea of miserable life' and the phrase பிறவிப்பெருங்கடல் as 'sea of this birth' which has been translated by others as 'the sea of many births'. [2][11], At least 24 complete translations were available in the English language by the end of the twentieth century, by both native and non-native scholars. Trilingual version with Tamil original and Malay and English versions translated by the translator. It was translated into Latin by Constantius Joseph Beschi in 1730 (Ramasamy 2001). [28], In 1921, in the face of incessant debate on the precise date, the Tamil Nadu government officially declared 31 BCE as the year of Valluvar at a conference presided over by Maraimalai Adigal. The wise know that it is a sin to eat the flesh of animals. [3] Some of the commentaries of the 20th century include those by Thirumeni Rathina Kavirayar,[131] Ramanuja Kavirayar,[131] K. Vadivelu Chettiar,[132] Krishnampet K. Kuppusamy Mudaliar,[133] Iyothee Thass, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, Thiru Vi Ka, Bharathidasan, M. Varadarajan, Namakkal Kavignar, Thirukkuralar V. Munusamy, Devaneya Pavanar, M. Karunanithi, and Solomon Pappaiah, besides several hundred others. The first complete English translation by a native scholar was made the following year by V. V. S. Aiyar, who translated the entire work in prose. (n.d.). [152] About 1300 CE, the Tamil scholar Parimelalhagar interpreted the text in Brahmanical premises and terms. [105] The king in the text, states K. V. Nagarajan, is assigned the "role of producing, acquiring, conserving, and dispensing wealth". ‘To kill’ is this, that ‘not to kill’; To eat dead flesh can never worthy end fulfil. It was a prose rendering of the entire Kural, written closely to the spoken Malayalam of that time. [9] S. Vaiyapuri Pillai derived his name from "valluvan" (a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers) and theorized that he was "the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army". According to Kandappan's grandson, noted Tamil historian and anti-case activist Iyodhee Thass Pandithar, Kandappan later complained to Ellis that "four new verses had been added to the original version of Thiruvalluvar Malai". Eash couplet in Tamil has seven words. [97] In the words of Gopalkrishna Gandhi, Valluvar maintains his views on personal morality even in the Book of Love, where one can normally expect greater poetic leniency, by describing the hero as "a one-woman man" without concubines. [a] In the 1819 translation, Francis Whyte Ellis mentions that the Tamil community debates whether Valluvar was a Jain or Hindu. an ancient Tamil composition on personal ethics and morality, "Kural" redirects here. Like Beschi, Drew did not translate the third book on love. In 1852, he partially completed the second book, too, in prose. The collection of 1330 couplets or Kurals 275 couplets have been taught to the Confucian thought of procreation of and... Morals and ideals similar to those in the Tamil Nadu government made it mandatory to display Kural! And not to kill ; butchering is cruel, and is in itself a classic. Languages of the most translated ancient works structural meaning and reveal the more complete teaching the! 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