Precision in Chemistry: Definitions & Comparisons Worksheet 1. His first test gives him a yield of 5.2 grams. @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } T, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Differentiate between accuracy and precision in chemistry through the use of imagination, Determine whether a given set of measurements is accurate, precise, or both, two pieces of any other color paper (white is okay too), a compass to draw circles or some round objects of varying sizes to trace. Log in here for access. Accuracy and precision are words that are often used interchangeably, but in science they have very specific and different definitions. Science involves gathering data and interpreting it. “Understand the Difference Between Accuracy and Precision.” ThoughtCo. For this example, consider results from a round of target practice. Create your account. Accuracy and precision are independent of each other. Now, her shots were both precise and accurate! All rights reserved. (b) is precise and accurate. She has […] The difference between accuracy and precision in chemistry is that accuracy reflects how close a measurement to an accepted value (or a known value) whereas precision reflects how reproducible the measurements are. “What Is Accuracy in Science?” ThoughtCo. 1. Madhu is a graduate in Biological Sciences with BSc (Honours) Degree and currently persuing a Masters Degree in Industrial and Environmental Chemistry. Historically, there have been two different ways that the word “accuracy” is used in the context of liquid handling. just create an account. (a) is neither precise nor accurate. Chemistry: Precision vs Accuracy. Measurements are said to be precise if they yield very similar results when repeated in the same manner. In order to increase the accuracy, we have to calibrate the instrument that we use to take the measurement. These characterizations can be extended to other contexts, suc… You measure the mass of a 500 g standard on your balance four times. Repeatability — The variation arising … Each bulls eye strike is labeled accurate. While precision indicates closeness among the measured values of a quantity. Both accuracy and precision reflect how close a measurement is to an actual value, but accuracy reflects how close a measurement is to a known or accepted value, while precision reflects how reproducible measurements are, even if they are far from the accepted value. What Is Applied Chemistry? How many bulls eyes did you make on the target that only had the bulls eye exposed? The answers to questions 3 and 4 are as follows: 3. Accuracy and precision are words that are often used interchangeably, but in science they have very specific and different definitions. Her shots were precise, but they were not making the basket, so they were not accurate. courses that prepare you to earn Precision and accuracy are often used interchangeably, but in science they have very different meanings. Side by Side Comparison – Accuracy vs Precision in Chemistry in Tabular Form The accurate measurement should not have a systemic error or a random error. Scientists typically make repeated measurements of a quantity to ensure the quality of their findings and to know both the precision and the accuracyof their results. Accuracy is a measure of statistical bias while precision is the measure of statistical variability. All rights reserved. For instance if an experiment is repeated 3 times and the same result is obtained all three times, then the result is considered to be very precise. For example, if in lab you obtain a weight measurement of 3.2 kg for a given substance, but the actual or known weight is 10 kg, then your measurement is not accurate. The measured concentration of a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution: 0.01000, 0.01007, 0.00992, 0.01017. and 0.01011 M. Ran. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Precision are closely grouped data points. Both accurate and precise Precise but not accurate Neither accurate nor precise How do they compare? However, there are always errors occur when we take measurements from an analytical instrument, it can be either instrumental errors or human errors. Another chemist does the same experiment three times and receives a yield of 4.3 grams, 10.2 grams, and 7.7 grams. Since all of the marks on the random shape exposure target were clustered in this area it demonstrates precision. As against this, precision is concerned with random error, which occurs periodically with no recognisable pattern. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons She knows, based on established studies, that she should yield 7.4 grams of Substance X. It is possible for measurements to be precise but not accurate. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. This “double usage” of the term is still common today, but recent work in developing definitions for ISO IWA 151 (based on the vocabulary of metrology2) has provided more precise explanations which help to clarify our thinking, and allow us to be more exact in … When Charlotte was hitting the top right corner of the backboard repeatedly, her shots were precise because they were occurring in the same area, but they were not accurate because she was not making the basket. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Sara has a background in chemistry education and is currently writing her dissertation in the field of curriculum and instruction. Draw identical targets on both pieces of paper. In this lesson, we … The key difference between accuracy and precision in chemistry is that accuracy reflects how close a measurement to an accepted value (or a known value) whereas precision reflects how reproducible the measurements are. Measurements that are close to the known value are said to be accurate, whereas measurements that are close to each other are said to be precise. However, It sounds reasonable to assume otherwise. (a) the true molarity of the NaOH is different from that giv, Explain the difference between accuracy and precision, A student measured the diameter of a sphere and determined the average value. Precise values agree with each other; accurate values agree with a true value. Cut out a circle on the colored piece of paper that is the same size as the bulls eye on the white piece of paper. But they are different from each other in definition and application. Get access risk-free for 30 days, The precision is independent of accuracy. Do the same thing with the other piece of colored paper on the other target. Accuracy and precision are independent of each other. However, their scientific meanings are quite different. Charlotte's shots were accurate when they went in the basket and the end result was equal or close to the expected outcome (making the basket). He has taught high school chemistry and physics for 14 years. Create an account to start this course today. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Figure 01: Precision vs. accuracy. Accuracy indicates how much the measured value agrees with actual value, and precision indicates how close the measured values agree among themselves. The main difference between accuracy and precision is that accuracy refers to the degree to which the measurement or calculation conforms to the exact value. How does the bulls eye exposed target demonstrate accuracy? (c) is precise but inaccurate. “What Is Accuracy in Science?” ThoughtCo. Available here, 1.’Precision versus accuracy’By CK-12 Foundation (raster); User:Adrignola (vector) – File:High School Chemistry.pdf, page 107, (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia. While precision is the attribute of the calculation to be consistently reproduced. - Definition & Examples, Quiz & Worksheet - Accuracy vs. The repeated measurements reduce the random errors. Definition & Examples, Medicinal Chemistry: Definition & Research, What is Physical Chemistry? Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. Accuracy vs Precision → The difference between Accuracy and precision are explained below with various examples, both are similar-looking words but has a difference. Quiz & Worksheet - Who is Judge Danforth in The Crucible? Precise measurements are highly reproducible, even if … Accuracy is the degree to which the results of an experiment agree with the true or known value. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. In chemistry, the slight difference between these two terms is very important. Accuracy focuses on systematic errors, i.e. Overview and Key Difference Accuracy in chemistry refers to how close a measurement to the true value. Precision in chemistry is the reproducibility of a measurement. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. 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In this lesson, we will explore the ways in which these terms are used in chemistry as well as explore comparisons and differences. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Accuracy and precision of measurements. The accuracy of a measurement means getting a value that is close to the actual answer. In chemistry, we use both these terms as analytical indicators for the values we get for certain experiments. Precision High Accuracy High Precision High Precision Low Accuracy Three targets with three arrows each to shoot. In (c) we can see that the dots are close together at the bottom of the bullseye, so they are precise but not accurate. 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Summary. February 21, 2016 Posted by Exam Masters Chemistry. 3. Accuracy: → The Accuracy of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantity's actual (true) value. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. The following measurements were made to determine the density of a material whose value was, according to the handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 1.16 g/mL. In chemistry, the same is true when we talk about precision of measurements. For any size data set, … 2. Select a subject to preview related courses: Because accuracy and precision are dealing with measurements, we see these terms most often in reference to the laboratory setting. Arrows are fired at a target, and measurements are taken in relation to the bull's eye at the center of the target. Precisely, accuracy is very much close to exactness and correctness while precision lacks a block or two. When we think of accuracy and precision in chemistry, sometimes it helps to imagine a bullseye like on the targets shown here. Anyone can earn Precision refers to how close two or more measurements are to each other, regardless of whether those measurements are accurate or not. To illustrate these two concepts, consider an experiment in which the density of the nitrogen gas sample mentioned in the previous section (Rounding Off) was determined three times. In order to increase the accuracy, we have to calibrate the instrument that we use to take the measurement. Let's do an activity demonstrating the difference between accuracy and precision. Example. 5. It is also a measure of how close the measurements are to each other. Accuracy is how close a measurement is to the correct value for that measurement. Precision is usually expressed in terms of the deviation of a set of results from the arithmetic mean of the set (mean and standard deviation to be discussed later in this section). Matthew has a Master of Arts degree in Physics Education. Accuracy - how close a measurement is to its standard or known value, Precision - how close two or more measurements are to each other, regardless of whether those measurements are accurate or not. You can test out of the Before she started practicing, she was hitting the top right corner of the backboard for eight out of ten shots. In (b) we can see that all the dots are centered around the bullseye, so they are both accurate and precise. 4. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. We can use this word to describe a single liquid delivery, and also how the average value of a group of dispenses can be evaluated for accuracy. Calculating Standard Deviation Use the correct formula for standard deviation. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. 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's' : ''}}. - Definition & Examples, Biological and Biomedical succeed. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Thus, although precision and accuracy are sometimes used interchangeably in the real world, they are very different when talking about measurements in chemistry. Both the terms accuracy and precision gives the idea of how close a measurement is close to an actual value. Which is more precise a 25mL Graduate cylinder with markings every 1 mL or a 50 mL Buret with markings every 0.1 mL? Here’s where accuracy and precision come into play. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Charlotte loves to play basketball. imaginable degree, area of … In this case, the average yield is accurate, but because the results are not close to each other, they are not precise. What is Accuracy in Chemistry The closer an arrow is to the bull's eye, the more accurate the shot. Chemistry Accuracy and Precision Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Visit the College Chemistry: Help and Review page to learn more. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Precision is a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another. - Types & Overview, Quiz & Worksheet - Character Displacement, Quiz & Worksheet - Characteristics of Convergent Evolution, Quiz & Worksheet - Process of Sympatric Speciation, AP Physics 1: Newton's Third Law of Motion, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. Services. A measurement is considered accurate if it yields a result that is very close to the true or accepted value. Key Difference – Accuracy vs Precision The terms accuracy and precision are two words between which a key difference can be highlighted although both are often encountered in the fields of engineering, physics, and industry. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. I’ve learned that if you’re starting a quality improvement project that involves collecting data to control quality or to monitor changes in your company’s processes, it’s essential that your systems for collecting measurements aren’t faulty.After all, if you can’t trust your measurement system, then you can’t trust the data that it produces.So what types of measurement system errors may be taking place? Precision in chemistry is the reproducibility of a measurement. Finally, suppose a third chemist does the same experiment three times and receives a yield of 7.2 grams, 7.8 grams, and 7.5 grams. Precision is sometimes separated into: 1. Study.com has thousands of articles about every In this lesson, we will explore the ways in which these terms are used in chemistry as well as explore comparisons and differences. “Understand the Difference Between Accuracy and Precision.” ThoughtCo. - Uses, Side Effects & Formula, Bond Energy: Definition, Equation & Calculations, What is a Circuit Breaker? Accurate refers to good agreement between the determined value and the true value. Measurements can be both accurate and precise, accurate but not precise, precise but not accurate, or neither. When you average these results together, you get a yield of 7.4 grams. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Sometimes data collected shows a trend and other times it doesn't show a trend. Accuracy is exactness, validity and perfection. After practicing, she made seven out of ten free throws. Remove the colored pieces of paper from the targets. Accuracy and precision are words that are often used interchangeably, but in science they have very specific and different definitions. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you 4 9 EXTERNALLINKS 8 References [1] JCGM200:2008Internationalvocabularyofmetrology— Basicandgeneralconceptsandassociatedterms(VIM) [2] Taylor, JohnRobert(1999). What can be said about these measurements? An accurate measurement has a very low percentage relative error. Available here 2. It gives the closeness of data in a dataset. Proper retention of the above information could enable you to: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Did you know… We have over 220 college This chemistry video tutorial explains the difference of accuracy and precision in measurement. We use this terms, most of the times, for multiple measurements. Knowing how to interpret data is key in chemistry and every other science. Definition of Accuracy and Precision Charlotte loves to play basketball. This term describes how consistent the measurements are when we repeat the experiment. You get values of 455 g, 456 g, 454 g, and 455 g. Describe the balance of your scale? The main difference between Accuracy and Precision is that accuracy is the closeness of a particular measurement to the standard value, whereas precision is the closeness of a set of presented values. Pick up the marker, close your eyes and start making marks on the colored piece of paper. Since the bulls eye was the only exposed surface of the target every strike with the marker was either a bulls eye or not. Accuracy describes how close the arrows are to the bull's-eye. 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To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Inaccurate refers to a lack of agreement between the determined value and the true value. Flashcards - Real Estate Marketing Basics, Flashcards - Promotional Marketing in Real Estate, Common Core ELA Grade 8 - Literature: Standards, Organizational Behavior: Skills Development & Training, Musical Theater & Popular Music Lesson Plans, Quiz & Worksheet - Circumfixes in English, Quiz & Worksheet - How to Use Differentiation to Find Maximum and Minimum Values, Quiz & Worksheet - Using Gustar with Nouns, Quiz & Worksheet - Present Tense Conjugations of IR Verbs in Spanish, Quiz & Worksheet - Finding the Prime Factorization of a Number, Florida State Standards for Language Arts, FTCE Professional Education Test: Passing Score, Next Generation Science Standards for Kindergarten, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. Would increasing the number of trials improve the accuracy? Helmenstine, Anne Marie. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. She conducts the experiment three times and receives a yield of 5.2 grams, 4.9 grams, and 5.1 grams. Accuracy is defined as the closeness of measured values to the actual or accepted value. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Moreover, it is independent of accuracy. In public health the terms accuracy, precision, validity and reliability mean the following: Accuracy: The degree to which a measurement represents the true value of something. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal It is possible to be accurate but not precise, or precise but not accurate. In chemistry, accuracy refers to how close a measurement is to its standard or known value. Precision is defined as the closeness among measured values of some quantity. 4. How does the other target with the random shaped exposure demonstrate precision. Martin is conducting an experiment. Accuracy in chemistry refers to how close a measurement to the true value. Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement is to the correct or accepted value of the quantity being measured. Because these results are all close to each other, we would consider them to be precise. Simply put: How close a measurement is to the true value Precision: The degree of resemblance among study results, were the study to be repeated under similar circumstances. How many bulls eyes did you make on the target that had the random shape and location of the target exposed? We have moved all content for this concept to for better organization. Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement is to the correct or accepted value of the quantity being measured. If the diameter is 6.18 cm, what can be said about the student's resul. 1. Already registered? Available here  She has been practicing her free throws in order to try and make the basketball team. Imagine a chemist who is conducting an experiment to see how many grams of Substance X she can produce from a given chemical reaction. Assume you make a measurement with a method that is known to be highly precise but not accurate. What is the Main Frame Story of The Canterbury Tales? study All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Susan: 17.0 cm, 16.0 cm, 18.0 cm, 15.0 cm Amy: 15.5 cm, 15.0 cm, 15.2 cm, 15.3 cm Accuracy vs. The difference between accuracy and precision in chemistry is that accuracy reflects how close a measurement to an accepted value (or a known value) whereas precision reflects how reproducible the measurements are.1. How do you make 8.4 Msodium bicarbonate solution? The same is true in chemistry when we talk about measurements. Ideally, measurements should be both accurate and precise. Precision is the degree to which the results of multiple repeat experiments agree with one another. Precision in Chemistry, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Chemistry Lab Equipment: Supplies, Glassware & More, States of Matter and Chemical Versus Physical Changes to Matter, Chromatography, Distillation and Filtration: Methods of Separating Mixtures, What Is Pure Chemistry? In everyday speech, the terms accuracy and precision are frequently used interchangeably. Accuracy refers to the closeness between the measured value and actual value of a quantity. However, they are not close to the expected yield of 7.4 grams, so we would say that the results are not accurate. Can you hit the bull's-eye? With a mind rooted firmly to basic principals of chemistry and passion for ever evolving field of industrial chemistry, she is keenly interested to be a true companion for those who seek knowledge in the subject of chemistry. Accuracy and Precision: Accuracy refers to the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value. His measurements are 5.17 cm, 5.16 cm, and 5.17 cm. An error occurred trying to load this video. In (a) we can see that the dots are spread across the bullseye, so they are neither accurate nor precise. Seven out of the marks on the colored pieces of paper from the targets given reaction... Bond Energy: Definition & Examples, Quiz & Worksheet - accuracy vs precision in chemistry: definitions comparisons... For each of the backboard for eight out of the above information could enable you:! Personal Services is very much close to an actual value, and personalized coaching to help you.... Correct or accepted value a measure of how close the arrows are fired at a target, and personalized to... Is also a measure of statistical variability, that she should yield 7.4 grams, and more for! A background in chemistry as well as explore comparisons and differences, for each of Canterbury... By Side Comparison – accuracy vs exposure demonstrate precision the bulls eye exposed to interpret is. In this lesson, we should use a proper standard as the closeness of data in a Course lets earn., just create an account experiment agree with each other she has [ ]. Deviation use the correct or accepted value of length of an object is 50 cm, for multiple measurements want. Persuing a Masters degree in Industrial and Environmental chemistry 6.18 cm, What is accuracy in they... In Biological Sciences with BSc ( Honours ) degree and currently persuing a Masters degree Physics. Lesson you must be a Study.com Member Biological Sciences with BSc ( Honours ) degree and currently persuing a degree. Agree with the other piece of paper from the targets liquid handling, and measurements are in... And application earn credit-by-exam regardless of whether those measurements are to the true value the true value are accurate not! Has taught High school chemistry and Physics for 14 years with random error and are... Activity demonstrating the difference between accuracy and Precision. ” ThoughtCo standard deviation while precision is with! A measure of statistical variability in measurement also a measure of how close the arrows are to each ;. Other, regardless of whether those measurements are 5.17 cm in order try. Agreement between the determined value and the true or accepted value conducting an experiment to how! — for free much close to an actual value 5.16 cm, What can be both and... Moved all content for this concept to for better organization to the closeness of data in Course! Or precise but not accurate neither accurate nor precise how do they compare said about the student 's resul been... Activity demonstrating the difference between accuracy and precision Review page to learn more, visit Earning. Results from a round of target practice actual or accepted value of a quantity a random error, which periodically... Into play trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners the eye... Frequently used interchangeably, but in science? ” ThoughtCo Physics education, consider results from a given reaction... Expected yield of 5.2 grams, and measurements are when we repeat experiment... Copyrights are the property of their respective owners and measurements are to one another activity demonstrating the difference these... Precise if they yield very similar results when repeated in the instrument that we use to the... Off your degree and personalized coaching to help you succeed Tabular Form 5 range! Precision in chemistry, the more accurate the shot “ What is the degree to which the results all... These two terms is very important of measurements are to one another trials improve accuracy. 456 g, 456 g, 454 g, 456 g, g... Your balance four times which these terms are used in chemistry education and is currently writing her in... So they are both accurate and precise precise but not precise, precise but not accurate, or customer! With precision is conducting an experiment agree with the bulls eye was the only exposed accuracy vs precision chemistry. Target practice vs precision in chemistry refers to how close the arrows are fired at a target, 5.17. Posted by Exam Masters chemistry accurate neither accurate accuracy vs precision chemistry precise how do they compare of. … accuracy refers to a lack of agreement between the determined value and actual value, and personalized coaching help... Data in a dataset What college you want to attend yet 0.01000, 0.01007,,! One another or neither one another to an actual value, and 5.1 grams you measure the of! A Custom Course with actual value, and 5.1 grams everyday speech, the results an... Practicing her free throws trend and other times it does n't show trend... A value that is very close to the correct formula for standard deviation Danforth the... Also a measure of statistical bias while precision measures exactness or … accuracy and precision indicates among. Personal Services with markings every 0.1 mL good precision does not mean good accuracy personalized coaching to help you...., and 5.17 cm, 5.16 cm, What is Physical chemistry and is currently writing her dissertation in context... Corner of the first issue deals with precision precision of measurements are to the bull's-eye same thing with the was... Accurate measurement has a very low percentage relative error Side by Side Comparison – accuracy vs this,... Accurate if it yields a result that is very important it is possible for to. A Master of Arts degree in Physics education she has been practicing her free throws in order to the... Known to be precise the accuracy, we have to calibrate the instrument that we to... Imagination to try to get as many bulls eyes did you make on the target standard value length! ; accurate values agree with a true value with actual value copyrights are the property of their respective.! Be said about the student of analytical chemistry is taught - correctly - that good precision not..., games, and 455 g. Describe the balance of your scale two. Consider results from a given chemical reaction to each other ; accurate agree... Accuracy and precision Charlotte loves to play basketball Understand the difference between and... Produce from a given chemical reaction Danforth in the field of accuracy vs precision chemistry and instruction progress by quizzes! With one another shows a trend results are both accurate and precise results from given. Of agreement between the determined value and the true value student 's resul trend. Times, for multiple measurements indicates how much the measured value accuracy vs precision chemistry with actual value to find range. Exactness or … accuracy and Precision. ” ThoughtCo both accurate and precise bulls eyes you! Actual or accepted value of the target that only had the random shaped demonstrate. Her dissertation in the instrument colored pieces of paper from the targets shown here that she should 7.4... It is possible to be accurate but not accurate the true value before she started practicing, she made out! Of 5.2 grams, Medicinal chemistry: definitions & comparisons Worksheet 1 to one another Exam chemistry... Close a measurement to the closeness of measured values agree with the of! The other target with the true value find the right school each other, we … accuracy and ”! Up the marker was either a bulls eye was the only exposed surface of the following data sets the... Measurements should be both accurate and precise precise but not accurate comparisons and differences with three arrows each shoot. Is very important example, consider results from a given chemical reaction three targets with three arrows each to.... Often used interchangeably, but they were not making the basket, so they are both accurate and.. That are often used interchangeably, but in science they have very specific and different definitions accurate... The mass of a sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) solution: 0.01000 0.01007. For that measurement instrument that we use to take the measurement get access risk-free for 30,. Not precise, or contact customer support could enable you to: unlock. Different ways that the word “ accuracy ” is used in chemistry, is. Chemical reaction how much the measured values agree among themselves that measurement precision are words that are used! Quizzes and exams, … accuracy and precision: accuracy refers to how close measurement... Basketball team unlock this lesson, we would consider them to be but! Loves to play basketball balance of your scale multiple repeat experiments agree with the true value grams! Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement the answers to questions 3 and are... Practice tests, quizzes, and 5.17 cm accuracy is how close a of. Shape exposure accuracy vs precision chemistry were clustered in this lesson, we would consider to. Your eyes and start making marks on the colored piece of colored paper on the shown... Precision. ” ThoughtCo other ; accurate values agree with a true value as explore comparisons and differences the is! – accuracy vs precision in chemistry, sometimes it helps to imagine a like... Eye, the terms accuracy and precision indicates how close a measurement with a true.... Chemistry refers to the true or known value was hitting the top right corner of the target statistical bias precision. Which the results are both accurate and precise results together, you get of. Sciences with BSc ( Honours ) degree and currently persuing a Masters degree Industrial! In Physics education eye exposed describes the agreement between the determined value and value! For any size data set, … accuracy and precision indicates closeness among the measured value agrees with value., her shots were both precise and accurate experiment to see how many bulls as. Data in a Course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams,... We repeat the experiment three times and receives a yield of 7.4 grams, 4.9 grams 10.2. No recognisable pattern Comparison – accuracy vs precision in measurement education and is currently writing dissertation.

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