(Photo Credit: National Archives), According to Constance J. Moore,[i] in the pre-antibiotic era, “nursing rather than medical therapeutics were the most important interventions for patients to recover from the influenza”. Emergency medical practices evolved enormously during the war years (1914–1918) and thousands more medical workers were involved than in previous wars. 1. Back in time: Violet's diary reveals the true horrors of war (Image: Raymonds Press). While in service, nurses carried out a number of critical functions outside the usual realm of nursing. CEUfast Blog[ii], “Nurses treated patients near or just behind the front lines at field hospitals, evacuation stations, or clearinghouses—even in churches that were turned into hospitals. [i] Constance J. Moore, Colonel, ANC (Retired), ANCA Historian The Army Nurse Corps and Spanish Influenza in 1918 https://e-anca.org/History/Topics-in-ANC-History/ANC-and-Spanish-Flu. Lack of proper data on deaths among healthcare workers a ‘scandal’, says international nursing chief Sisters' portrait returns to Wrest Park stately home. “After June 15 the hospital was well filled & work became more strenuous for the nurses. This changed in 1919. Transferred to a treatment center in Britain or France, the invalided soldier was placed under the care of neurology specialists and recuperated until discharged or returned to the front. Marion’s grandmother, Lucy Leane belonged to the… All day long from morning until night I went from bed side to bed side doing dressings. There were other volunteer nursing groups, like the VADs (Voluntary Aid Detachments) — with whom Agatha Christie trained — with less strict training, who helped in the wards at secondary nursing tasks. Before Florence Nightingale reorganized the care of wounded soldiers during the Crimean War in 1854, it had been the task of camp followers — wives and prostitutes — to treat them with whatever primitive medical help was available. Jodie Richter November 6, 2017. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1927, [ii] https://ceufast.com/blog/nursing-and-medicine-during-world-war-i. “The battlefield conditions presented extreme challenges for nurses. What are these records? They were not just a higher class of camp followers. They operated only at the direction of a doctor. Julia Stimson, Chief Nurse at Base Hospital #21, described their hut (ward) “our surgical hut looks like a carpenter shop. 1. And even years later, well into the First World War, which came to an end a century ago on Nov. 11, 1918, some officers still felt that women didn’t belong on the battlefield. This reduces the amount of oxygen and nutrients to the feet which can result in tissue and nerve damage. Some women finally gained the vote in 1918 — at war’s end — as promised earlier in the war when the Suffragettes had agreed to halt their civil protests for the duration. They could be expelled if they had affairs or even became engaged. [i] https://www.womensmemorial.org/exhibits/detail/?s=world-war-i-nurses-the-journal-of-emma-elizabeth-weaverEmma Elizabeth Weaver (1878-1966) of the University of Pennsylvania Base Hospital served in France and Germany between 1918 and 1919 and kept a journal of her service. These women were expected to uphold the integrity of their service. The soldiers lived in the filth of the trenches, and if they were wounded, their injuries were immediately corrupted with it. Base Hospital 18, in France was staffed mainly with Hopkins nurses and physicians. Mixing of the solution required precise measurement of ingredients. How World War I Revolutionized Medicine downloaded 5/19/ 2019https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2017/02/world-war-i-medicine/517656/, Soldiers suffering from influenza at the hospital in Camp Funston, Kansas in 1918. The nurses stationed at casualty clearing stations in France and Belgium sometimes faced dangerous circumstances and were exposed to gas and bomb attacks. A nearby school, the Lycée Pasteur of Neuilly-sur-Seine, is transformed into a temporary hospital and serves as a base for the ambulance service. There are no records, however, after 1939. France bestowed the Croix de Guerre on 28 American nurses for their service in WWI.1, 8, 5 Great Britain awarded the British Royal Red Cross to 69 American nurses and the Military Medal to 2 of them.8, 5 The U.S. awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (the second highest gallantry medal) to 3 nurses and the Distinguished Service Medal (the highest decoration in noncombat) to 23 more.8, 3, 5 Julia Stimson summed up the perseverance she saw: Nurses “at the front are having such wonderful times. Their relationships with the men under their care had to be completely professional. Mustard gas damages the respiratory tract and causes severe eye irritation and skin blistering. “Base Hosp #20 was originally planned as a 500 bed hosp. They were also faced with soldiers suffering from emotional injuries, including shell shock. Some were trained in social work, including psychiatric training, in order to help current soldiers and those returning home deal with their experiences. They overcame insurmountable odds, endured gender-based prejudice, and helped a flood of wounded soldiers under enemy fire. Nurses who went to France with the British Expeditionary Force in late 1939 and early 1940, returning at the time of the evacuation of Dunkirk. Read more. [i], Prevention - the best treatment for Trench Foot, WWI saw large-scale use of chemical weapons, commonly called, ‘gas’ attacks – their effect on humans and animals was horrific – leading to a formidable fear factor .when. These temporary facilities for wounded servicemen proved to be vital. From 1914-1916 American civilian nurses volunteered with the American Ambulance Service in Paris and as nurses at a French Army field hospital in Belgium. They were also given one half day off per week if work-loads were not too heavy. New and innovative practices included blood transfusions, the use of antiseptics, local anesthetics, and painkillers. Nursing provided a major opportunity for Australian women to participate actively in the war. Trench foot is relatively unknown in the modern army, but was a frequent occurrence in the trenches of the Great War. But the franchise was only extended to women who were 35, the head of household or the owner of property. [i] “For fracture treatment, assuming infection could be controlled; traction remained the mainstay with Balkan frame wards dominating every base and general hospital. Conversely, the Germans had decent male-only hospitals in their deep, multilayered trenches, so unlike the shallow ones the Allies dug. On January 30, 1913, the United States Congress officially recognized the American Hospital of Paris, granting it federal status. They could be found … What they would experience over nearly five years of war was horror, privation, exhaustion and danger. Injuries from battles on French farm fields featured both shards of shrapnel and embedded soil and manure. According to a special report from the Smithsonian, “shrapnel from mortars, grenades and, above all, artillery projectile bombs, or shells, would account for an estimated 60 percent of the 9.7 million military fatalities of World War I… It was soon observed that many soldiers arriving at the casualty clearing stations who had been exposed to exploding shells, although clearly damaged, bore no visible wounds. In the beginning of the conflict military nurses were intended to work in the rear and not face dangerous conditions near the battlefield. Published online 2015 May 1. doi: 10.1007/s11999-015-4327-5. [i] These female nurses challenged conceptions of how close women could be to battle and how they could face danger. Surgical and gas treatment teams were organized to take specialty care closer to the patients; nurses were key elements of those teams. This restrictive rule was finally eliminated 20 years later during World War II. 10 Most Famous Nurses in History : 1. For doctors, who were well aware of the stigma of a mental diagnosis and its damaging effect on a man’s self-respect, it became usual practice to attach to traumatized soldiers the biological label of shell shock[i], [i] Stefanie Linden, Psychiatrist and Clinical Research Fellow, Cardiff University, World War I records reveal myths and realities of soldiers with ‘shell shock’ November 20, 2014 http://theconversation.com/world-war-i-records-reveal-myths-and-realities-of-soldiers-with-shell-shock-34383. I had five tents each with eight of these beds but before the evening was over four more were added to each tent so that I had 12 in each. Their novels include the forthcoming The Black Ascot and the recent Bess Crawford novel A Forgotten Place. Women have a long history of serving as nurses to soldiers in the military. It made the world realize its dependence on nurses and the urgency to prepare them for war. Trench foot doesn’t require freezing temperatures and can develop in temperatures up to sixty degrees Fahrenheit and even affect people indoors. Mary Adams, 1911, describes the heavy work and many wounded in an undated letter from the February 1917 edition of the Alumnae Magazine[i]. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Reddit WhatsApp Share via Email Print. WWI nurses in a hospital with soldiers as patients. American women were granted that right in 1920, in the 19th Amendment. This, of course was a case of phosgene gas poisoning”. [ii]Three substances were responsible for most chemical-weapons injuries and deaths during World War I: chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas. Still, in the hundred years since the Armistice, we have really not made a hundred years of progress in how women are viewed in many workplaces. Nurses who served with the Scottish Women's Hospital during the Great War. Maclean was, however, permitted to provide six (a seventh joined later) nurses to sail with the New Zealand troo… Contrary to what some hoped at the time, that war did not end all wars — and in those that followed, nurses carried on the tradition of duty and service begun by Florence Nightingale and so faithfully embodied by the courageous women of World War I. Caroline Todd writes, along with her son Charles Todd, under the name Charles Todd. September 1915: A group of nurses at Hamworth Hall in the U.K., which was serving as a Red Cross Hospital during WWI. Jun 22, 2019 - Explore Maxine Getty's board "WW1 Nurses" on Pinterest. On Oct 10, 1918 we had 2275 patients & only 49 nurses, some of the nurses being on Emergency teams, several sick & several at Camp # 44 The mail from the States at this time was very irregular. Auxiliary hospitals. This was a case of mustard gas burns. The next day we were up earlier than usual and I found my number of tents increasing so that I soon had 150 patients. One of them, Sister Mary Ridley Makepeace was a nurse in my Boer War database who was also one of the Boer War veterans to serve in WW1, retiring in … Read More Accessing records from after WW1; Diaries & Letters. The beginning of the 20th century there were many American’s who visited and lived in Paris - tourists, students, travelers, and expats in France. Politicians and the public took notice of the contribution that nurses made during the war and this contributed to nursing becoming a regulated profession. Our work during the war included running auxiliary hospitals and convalescent homes. They performed all kinds of roles from nurses to air raid wardens. These are over 15,000 First World War service records for nurses in series WO 399 who served in the Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service, the Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service (Reserve) and the Territorial Force Nursing Service during the First World War.. 11 July 1915 Eleven nurses depart for Gallipoli on New Zealand’s first hospital ship, the Maheno. Certainly nursing was a high-profile example of what women could achieve, although their sisters in other positions were the backbone of England’s work force and clearly visible on an almost daily basis. Troops from the camp carried the virus to other Army bases during World War I. Rather stingily, considering their service and the losses they’d suffered as a generation of fathers, husbands, and sons died for King and Country. Unusually the nurses are named. “The nurses all worked or trained in Ipswich Hospital before joining the war effort to tend to the needs of sick and injured soldiers, in places such as Egypt, India, Mesopotamia, France, England and on board Commonwealth hospital ships,” Mary said. Officers might enjoy a final period of convalescence before being disgorged back into the maw of the war or the working world, gaining strength at some smaller, often privately funded treatment center—some quiet, remote place such as Lennel House, in Coldstream, in the Scottish Borders country. Chemical attacks have been occasionally been used since then but never in WWI quantities.[i]. Women learned to drive omnibuses or to take over desks wherever men could be spared. How did the nurses get enlisted into the war. Nor were those who worked on the land or drove the buses or set the fuse in all those shells. 5 December 1915 Twenty-two nurses leave New Zealand on the Marama, New Zealand… Unusually the nurses are named. Both women, and those they inspired to serve, saved countless lives. "Up to this point in the nursing field, nurses were not in a position to make decisions on their own. More than 3,000 Australian civilian nurses volunteered for service during the First World War. Others dug up gardens and fallow land to grow needed foodstuffs for the home front, after U-boats attacked convoys coming in from the Empire and the U.S. British farmers were desperate for help. I have 2 tents holding 70 patients each and they have to lie on stretchers and pretty close, and making dressings practically on the floor, nearly breaks my back, but I get through somehow or other and am not much the worse for wear. For our fictional take on the nurse’s situation, we made protagonist Bess Crawford the daughter of an officer in the British Army, giving her a less Victorian upbringing as well as parents who were more likely to agree that she could train, but it was not uncommon for families to refuse permission, feeling that this would be too shocking. The nurses performed triage as patients came in on ambulance trains, directed corpsmen who had little medical training, managed entire wards of patients and performed a variety of procedures, including irrigating wounds and managing infection.” - Symposium on the Impact of WWI on the Nursing Profession [i]. Photo: A group of WWI nurses arrive at Cairo railway station to begin their war service, not knowing what lies ahead of them. More than 3,000 Australian civilian nurses volunteered for active service during the First World War. a gas cloud could be seen slowly approaching over the battlefield .Gas masks were mandatory for humans and animals. Since there were only palliatives measures for the flu and the pneumonia, isolation practices, asepsis rules, and strict routines were the priority standards of care. Some answer ‘yes’ as they consider the improvement in care to victims of accidents and disasters a positive result of medical knowledge gained. https://magazine.nursing.jhu.edu/2016/10/hopkins-nurses-in-world-war-i-views-from-the-field/, https://medium.com/americanexperiencepbs/american-nurses-in-world-war-i-under-appreciated-and-under-fire-a97ef816ac2a, https://ceufast.com/blog/nursing-and-medicine-during-world-war-i, Military Nurses in WW!- includes additional material PDF. A nurse reported, “Our chief duties were to give medicines to the patients, fix ice packs, feed them at [meal] time, rub their back or chest with camphorated sweet oil, [and] make egg-nogs.”. Nurses were called to serve even closer to the battlefield than they had before, even serving under fire. Each of these courageous women, though patriots of different countries, were ultimately devoted to the true calling of nursing: saving human life. Wrest Park WW1 photos colourised to trace nurses. Sister Jessie Tomlins Sister Jones Sister Kenny Sister Annie Tompson Frances Hines Sister Narelle Hobbs Gertrude Dohetry Sister Clare Deacon Dorothy Cawood Alice Between 1914 and 1918, 2,504 served in Europe. From the start, Canadian nurses participated. It is a sad, sobering fact that war results in increasing medical knowledge and skills of all medical personnel – physicians, surgeons and nurses. All of which they did with great courage and dedication, often staying with their patients as the Germans overran a sector. War nursing’s more common hazards included infected fingers, sickness, and physical strain. Nurses also served in India, Mesopotamia and Salonika French Army field Hospital in London was run and staffed by... 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